Blood pressure

The pressure of the blood that exerts on the blood veins known as the blood pressure. To count the blood pressure two values are evaluated.

Diastolic and systolic blood pressure. The values of the blood pressure when the heart shrinks refer to the systolic blood pressure. On the other hand, when the heart expands the pressure of the blood known as the Diastolic blood pressure.

The pressure of the blood in our body rise when we are taking exercise and while we are sleeping blood pressure fall down.

 

 Hypertension

The high blood pressure is a state in which the pressure of the blood remains high or rising. A person is suffering from the high blood pressure (Hypertension) when his systolic blood pressure is at 140mmhg or more and diastolic blood pressure is 90mmhg or more.

The basic types of Hypertension are as follows:

Primary Hypertension

Secondary Hypertension

Primary hypertension is a kind of blood in which a person is medically fit. While secondary is caused by any kind of disease like a problem in the kidney, due to high cholesterol level or fatness.

There are no specific symptoms of the high blood pressure. But it can cause many problems like strokes, heart attacks, kidney failure, and eyesight weakness. A normal high blood pressure can also cause many problems.

You can control high blood pressure by improving your daily lifestyle like adopting a routine of exercise daily, less usage of Sodium, reduce the fats and cholesterol in your daily food, and reduce your weight.

 Diabetes

Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas. That is essential for the conversion of the glucose (sugar) and food into energy. This energy is used by the human body to work properly. The glucose cannot penetrate well in the human body when the insulin level is low. Then the glucose level of the body rises that is called diabetes.

Diabetes is a metabolic disease which can be further divided into 3 types.

Type no. 1

This type is often exposed in the childhood. In which, insulin is not produced or pancreas a little amount of insulin. So the child rely on the injecting the insulin rest of his life.

 

 

Type no. 2

This is the most common type of diabetes, found in the youngsters. Pancreas produce minute amount of insulin or insulin do not affect the body. Due to this, the glucose level of the human body rises.

Type no. 3

Following are some symptoms for the diabetes

Feel nausea/vomit or weakness eyesight

Feeling tired.

Unnessecory appetite

Feels more thirsty

Excess passage of urine.

Diagnosis or tests for the Diabetes.

These are some diagnostic tests for the diabetes Urine test, Fasting blood sugar, non-fasting blood sugar, HbA1c etc.

Due to diabetes, people can suffer from many serious problems (pachidgiyon) like kidney failure, eyesight weakness and much more.

 Human Skeleton

The skeleton is the essential and basic frame of the human body. That gives the support the body. An adult has 206 bones. Its count can be more or less than the 206. For example, a person has an extra finger and someone has fingers than of the normal people fingers. The largest bone is known as the femur and the smallest one is present in the ear called stapes. The bones appear before the birth of a child. The bones of the babies are flexible and with the passage of time calcium phosphate or collagen strength, the bones but this procedure require about 20 years to be complete.

The whole Human skeleton system is divided into 2 main parts:

  1. Axial Skeleton System
  2. Appendicular Skeleton System

Axial Skeleton System

The human head or trunk is consist of 80 bones. That is called Axial skeleton. The main purpose is to keep save or give protection to the vital organ.

It further divided into five main parts:

  1. Skull.
  2. Inner ear bones.
  3. Hyoid bone.
  4. Ribs.
  5. Vertebral columns.

Appendicular Skeleton System:

Appendicular Skeleton System consists of 126 bones. That is used for the movements like digestive system, urinary system, and the protection of (Toulidi Aza ).

It consists of 6 parts.

  1. Shoulder girdle
  2. Arm
  3. Hand
  4. Pelvic girdle
  5. Leg
  6. Foot

 

 Types of bones

The skeleton is a collection of bones. That can be categorized into 4 main parts

  1. Long bones.

Such types of bones are present in the arm as humerus, ulna, radius, in leg femur, tibia, and fibula. These all help human body for the movement.

In hands, metacarpal and metatarsal are the long bones.

  1. Flat bones

These bones protect the sensitive parts of the body. Like skull protect the brain.

  1. Short bones

These bones handle the weight of the body. These bones are carpal and tarsal.

  1. Regular bones

It defines the shape of the body and also provides protection like face bones and vertebral column.

 

 

 

 Muscles

A bundle of fibers tissues of the human body that has an ability to contract or shrink and produce the movement. It also maintains the position of the body. It contains the half weight of the human body.

Muscles are sub categorized into following three types:

Skeletal/ Voluntary muscles

These are the visible muscles of the human body. A person can see these muscles. A body builder strengthens his muscles through particular exercises.  These muscles also known as the voluntary muscles because a human can move them.  When a person can move these muscles as he wants otherwise they remain in the same position.

Smooth /Involuntary muscles

These muscles move automatically according to the nerves system instruction like stomach muscles, blood vessels, trachea or the muscles in the uterus. Smooth muscles have the capability to expand more and remain in this position. A person cannot feel the contraction and expansion of these muscles. For example, a person cannot observe the movement of the stomach. We never feel a little movement of our stomach.

Cardiac muscles.

These muscles also move automatically. It only found in the heart. The walls of the heart are made up of these muscles or fibers. When the heart beats it cause strong contraction and pump the blood throughout the body.

 Joints

The point of the body where two or more than two bones join called joints of the body. Joints provide support to the body for the movement.

The kinds of the joints are as follows:

  1. Fixed joints

These joints cannot move, like skull bones joints that do not move. These unmovable joints keep our brain saves. The other examples are jaws and the joints of our teeth.

  1. Moveable joints

These joints can move to some extent. Like the joints of the vertebral column. The joint of the spine can move as compared to the others. The spine of the body is flexible due to the moveable vertebral columns.

 

 

 

  1. flexible/moveable joints.

These joints can move in any direction. Like all the large size joints, hip joints, elbow joints, knee, shoulder, and wrist that can freely move. These are filled with fluid between the spaces that knows as the lubricant of these joints. That enhances the movement of these joints. The freely movable joints further divided into three parts.

Hinge Joint

These joints can move in one direction. Like the joints of the knees and elbows.

Pivot joint

The pivot joints can move and rotate. An example of pivot joint is the first and second vertebral columns of the neck that can move vertically and horizontal. That means head can move left, right as well as up and down.

Ball and socket joints.

These joints can move freely rather than others. The shoulder and hip joints. These joints have a spherical ball at one end and second bone has a socket at the end.

 Fracture

The cracking and breaking of the bone are known as the fracture. Bones have the capability to inhale naturally. A particular type of cells (Osteoclasts) remove the broken pieces, where a bone is fractured or broken.

A particular type of cells (Osteoblasts) is responsible for the healing of the fractured Bones. New cells and blood vessels appear at the point where the bone is fractured. A particular group of cells produces a liquid that provides help to joint, the broken parts of the bone. Normally a broken bone become normal within six months but the bones cannot get the proper supply of blood can take long duration than the normal duration, like femur bone and lower part of the tibia.

Symptoms of fracture:

  • A person experienced the voice of cracking when he get the wound.
  • Swelling or bruises around the injury.
  • The situation gets worse when the broken bone comes out of the skin.

 

 

 

 Types of the fractures

Bukal fracture

It is very common injury mostly found in the children. Because children have soft bones. This fracture is caused by the compression of the bone. The side of the bone under compression cause wrinkles on the side of the bone.

Greenstick fracture

In this type of fracture, one side of the bone is broken or crack while other side bends only.  The bone do not completely break. This fracture is similar when you try to break down a small green branch of a tree. When you apply force on it one side of the branch totally cracks but opposite side just bends.

 

Closed fracture

The fracture within the body. When a bone is a break but does not come through the skin. Sometimes that will cause serious injury to tissues. The severity of the closed fracture can vary and depends on which bone is affected and how large the crack is.

Open or compound fracture

A bone fracture resulting in an open wound or injury. In which fragments of the broken come out through the skin. That may cause serious infection.

No displaced fracture

If the bone is broken in many pieces but the pieces of the bone remain in one direction.

Displaced fracture

In a displaced fracture, the broken bone does not remain in one direction or abnormal position of bone pieces to the nearer bone. A surgery is required to align the fragments.

Hairline fracture

A small fracture in which the fragments of the bones remain in its original alignment. A minor or thin line appears on the x-ray film.

Single fracture

If the bone is fractured at one place is called single fracture.

Segmental fracture

If a bone broke into 2 or more than 2 pieces, the fracture is called segmental bone.

 

 

 

 First Aid Management

Use splint for the supporting and freeze the movement of the broken bone.

  1. First, place the cotton around the fracture.
  2. Then place the splint over the cotton. It would be hard plastic, metal, plaster of pairs or fiberglass.
  3. Then adjust the splint.
  4. If the splint is placed around the fracture then patient needs to place the fractured part of his body on a soft pillow.

Tips for people to avoid fracture Risks

  • If we walk regularly. This will help to keep our bones and muscles strong. Exercise keeps us healthy.
  • Make sure that your stairs and pathways are lighter
  • Be care while using stairs
  • Replace all home appliances that may cause unbalance movement or stumble.
  • Use strong supports while coming down from stairs.
  • Adjust your furniture in such a way that you feel comfortable while walking around.
  • The floor of your bathroom has no slippery surface.
  • While selecting the shoes, make sure they are comfortable and not too much loose. The shoes are must be fastened tightly.
  • Place a plastic mate in front of the sink. So no one get slipped.